EXPLANATION OF BIBLICAL YEAR AND MONTHS
rev. June 2022
The Biblical Calendar was design by God. It comprises of 364 days a year with some months being 31 days and others being 30 days. Therefore the average month consists of 30.3 days (Enoch 72:32; Jubilees 6:32). The average month was 30 days based on the 150day difference between the 17th day of the 2nd month (Gen. 7:11; Gen. 8:3) and the 17th day of the 7th month (Gen. 8:4). Therefore the remaining 7 months would have some months being 31 days.
When the law was given to Moses, the sacred year starts with Abib/ Nisan being the 1st month of the year (Exo. 12:2; Exo. 13:4; Est. 3:7) and there are 12 months a year (Est. 3:7; 1 Kings 4:7). The new moon was the start of every month as per the example of the Passover; where the 1st day of the month was a new moon to enable the Passover to be on a full moon, the 14th day (Exo. 12:6; Exo. 13:10; Psa. 81:3; Lev. 23:5-6). However, due to the sin in the world, the solar cycle slowed down causing the moon cycle to be out of order (Jubilees 6:38). There were generally 12 months a year (Est. 3:7). The solar year changed from 364 days to 365.25 days per year and the month cycle slowed down from an average of 30.3 days to 30.4 days per month. The moon cycle is ~29.5 days per cycle x 12 = 354days. Therefore, if one uses the 12month moon cycle only, then the various feasts such as “feast of first fruits” would have on occasion, happened in the winter. Therefore, the months need to match the solar calendar for the festivals to coincide with the seasonal harvests (Exo. 13:15-16; Lev. 23:9-14). In order to adjust this, the Israelites periodically added a month to a year. The month Adar II was added at the end of the 12th month, at a frequency of 7 times during a 19year cycle to make up for this discrepancy (every ~3years). This meant a leap year would be 383/385 days.
An interesting note is that the counting of years of “Jubilee” did not start at Abib but started from the 10th day of the 7th month (Lev. 25:9-17), called Rosh Hashanah. But the counting of years starts at the 1st of Abib, when the Israelites came out of Egypt (Num. 1:1; 1 Kings 6:1). Another interesting note is that although today many Jews keep the Passover on the 15th of Abib/ Nisan, there are a few who keep it on the 14th. The issue is understanding when twilight is. Is it at the start or end of the Biblical day as there is only one twilight per day? We know that the Biblical day starts at evening and finishes in the day (Gen. 1:5), but does it start at the sun setting/ below the horizon (twilight) or at total darkness? First we need to understand that the 15th Abib is a High Sabbath, Unleavened Bread, a day of rest (Lev. 23:6; Num. 28:17). Therefore if twilight on the 14th Abib is at the end of the 14th day then the Disciples would have eaten the Passover in the evening on the 15th Abib. The events that followed such as carrying of clubs, Jewish holding hearings etc. would not have been done on the High Sabbath day. Therefore it is only logical that Yeshua and the 1st Century Jews kept Passover at the start of 14th Abib being twilight, the 15th Abib (High Sabbath) would be 24hours later. Therefore twilight in scripture is at the start of the Biblical day.
During the 7year world Tribulation period, the solar calendar seems to speed up for the first half and slow down for the next half. In the 1st 3.5 years when the 2 witnesses are on earth and protecting the Temple of God (Rev. 11:2-3) there is an average of 30 days per month and a year is 360days. This is based on the 1st 1,260days (Rev. 12:6) which is 3.5 years (Dan. 12:7; Rev. 12:14), and 1,260 days is in the middle of the 7years when 2 Witnesses are killed, the daily sacrifices stop and the Beast takes possession of the Temple of God (Dan. 9:27).
When the 2 Witnesses are gone, the sacrifices stop and the Beast takes possession of the Temple (Dan. 9:27), the Beast is killed (Rev. 13:3; Rev. 13:14) and the Dragon gives him power to continue reigning for another 42 months, causing abominations in the Temple of God for 1,290 days (Rev. 13:5; Dan. 12:11). Therefore the last 3.5 years will be 1,290 days (42months) which is an average 30.7days a month 368.6 days per year. To summarize the first 3.5years = 1,260days and the second 3.5years = 1290days. God seems to have changed the solar calendar or the solar calendar was changed based of the level of sin. After the first 3.5 years, the change is more drastic (8 days different), and maybe this is the impetus for the Beast to change the times (Dan. 7:25).
Controversial areas SOLVED
1) The festival sabbaths are done away with (referred to in Col. 2:16, not the 7th Day Sabbath).
2) That Yeshua was resurrected on the 17th not on the 16th First Fruits.
3) His disciples would have been in Jerusalem for 9 days after Yeshua's ascension before Holy Spirit descended upon them (not referring to the infilling that happened 1-2 days after His resurrection John 20:22).
4) There are 12 months of the year, however there was a 13th Month included every 3years to compensate for the Solar Calendar known as Adar 2 or Veadar (100BC-70AD), as they used the moon cycle (354 days per year). This was done by the Pharisees and is not Biblical. Prior to this per the book of Enoch (dead sea scrolls), there was 364 days per year. Some believe, based on other artefacts, that a week was added every 7 years to compensate for the solar leap years and extra day.
5) 3 times a year the men were to appear at Jerusalem - Festival of Unleavened Bread (included Passover), Of Weeks and Tabernacles (included Day of Atonement).
6) The Biblical Year starts in Abib (Nisan) - the start of the year. The Civil year starts in Tishri, this is when the Jubilee years are counted from.
7) 3 Festivals that were added by people not God (~400BC Purim, ~150BC lights). There was no pre-requisite of coming to Jerusalem. Yeshua was in Jerusalem at the time during the festival of dedication, therefore people believed that He kept it. This is not true. I'm in Toronto during some festivals, please don't assume I participate in them.
8.) There is no place in the scripture that says the year is broken down into 12 months, however it does say when the first of the year needs to be - first fruit (spring). Also scripture does allude to a year being 52 weeks based on the 24x2 rotations of priests for the Temple and 3-4 weeks they served together during the festivals of Unleavened Bread, Pentecost and Tabernacles. (1 Chr. 9:25; 24:6-19; 2 Chr. 5:11). The Book of Enoch states there are 12 months - based on 30 & 31 days with a total of 364days/year.